Who Signed the Anglo Irish Agreement
Michael Collins later claimed that Lloyd George had threatened the Irish delegates at the last minute with a resumption of the “terrible and immediate war” if the treaty was not signed immediately. This was mentioned in the Irish memorandum on the conclusion of the negotiations not as a threat, but as a personal remark by Lloyd George to Robert Barton and simply as a reflection of the reality of a military ceasefire.  Barton noted that: In the communiqué annexed to the agreement, the United Kingdom agreed that all British Army patrols in Northern Ireland would have a civilian escort from the Royal Ulster Constabulary, except in the most exceptional circumstances.  Until 1997, the Irish government protested thousands of times against breaches of this obligation.  Éamon de Valera appointed on the 8th. A cabinet meeting was held in December to discuss the treaty, where it opposed the signed treaty. On 14 December, the cabinet decided by four votes to three to recommend the treaty to the Dáil.  On January 6, the day before the final vote, de Valera acknowledged the deep division within his cabinet: “When these statutes were signed, the body in which the executive power of this assembly and the state is located was divided as completely as possible. Irrevocably, not on personalities or anything like that, but on absolute foundations. An opinion poll conducted shortly after the signing showed that in the republic, 59% supported the agreement, 29% were against and 12% had no opinion.  The FitzGerald government`s approval rating increased by 10% to 34%; 32 percent agreed with Haughey`s opposition to the deal, while 56 percent were against.  The agreement was reached in Downing Street on December 6, 1921, five months after an armistice of the Irish War of Independence.
The treaty stipulated that the Royal Navy would continue to be responsible for the seas around Ireland until a future agreement was reached, although the Irish Free State was allowed to dispose of the boats needed to “protect income or fishing”. UUP MP Enoch Powell asked Thatcher in the House of Commons the day before the agreement was signed: “Is hon. The lady understands – if she does not understand it yet, she will soon understand it – that the punishment for treason is to fall into public contempt?  UUP leader James Molyneaux spoke of “the stench of hypocrisy, deception and betrayal” and later of the “universal cold anger” at the deal he had not experienced in forty years of public life.  Ian Paisley, in his congregation a few days later, compared Thatcher to “Jezebel trying to destroy Israel in a day.”  He wrote to Thatcher: “Having failed to defeat the IRA, you have now capitulated and are ready to set in motion a machinery that will achieve the IRA`s objective. a united Ireland. We now know that you have prepared the Ulster Unionists for sacrifice on the altar of political opportunism. They are supposed to be the sacrificial lambs to appease the wolves of Dublin.  In his letter to FitzGerald, Paisley said, “You claim jurisdiction over our territory, our homes, our individuals, and our families in your Constitution. You allow your territory to be used as a launching pad for murderous gangs and as a refuge for them when they return soaked in the blood of our people. You are a fellow traveler of the IRA and hope to ride on the back of their terrorism towards your goal of a united Ireland.
We reject your claims and will never submit to your authority. We will never comply with the Dublin rule.  Secret meetings were held from December 14 to 17 and on the morning of January 6 to avoid discord in the press and the public. During the first of these, de Valera also produced his ideal redesign, which in many ways did not differ radically from the signed agreement, but was probably not acceptable to the British side, since the various points had already been discussed.  The agreement was adopted by Dáil Éireann by 88 votes to 75 and by Seanad Éireann by 37 votes to 16.   The Irish nationalist political party Fianna Fáil, Ireland`s main opposition party, also rejected the deal. Fianna Fáil leader Charles Haughey said the agreement was contrary to Articles 2 and 3 of the Irish Constitution as it formally recognised British jurisdiction in Northern Ireland. It was also fought by independent Republican TDs Neil Blaney and Tony Gregory, with Blaney calling the deal a “fake job.” Despite this opposition, all the other main parties in the republic supported the agreement, and it was ratified by the Oireachtas. On 29 September, Lloyd George reiterated to de Valera that recognition of the Republic of Ireland “is a recognition that no British government can accept”, and he reiterated his invitation to talks on “the best way to reconcile Ireland`s link with the Community of Nations, known as the British Empire, with Irish national aspirations”. started on the 11th. October in London, which was tacitly accepted by the Irish side.
 On October 7, de Valera signed a letter of accreditation as “President” on behalf of the “Government of the Republic of Ireland” (see photo), but the letter was never requested by the British side.  The Irish and British sides knew that if the armistice agreed in July 1921 failed, the war would end and the war would inevitably resume, a war that neither side wanted. Three months had passed without anything having been agreed. Frederick Edwin (FE Smith), Lord Birkenhead (1872-1930): Birkenhead was a Conservative politician and supporter of Ulster unionism who followed the fall of the Crown against Roger Casement. As Lord Chancellor (British Chief Law Officer), he was responsible for drafting much of the treaty. He told Michael Collins that he had signed his “political death sentence” by signing the treaty. Birkenhead was considered a brilliant but self-destructive man. He drank himself to death at the age of 58. The last articles dealt with the transition from British to Irish rule, which was to be administered by a “provisional government”. The Irish Free State was to be established on 6 December 1922, exactly one year after the signing of the treaty, and it did so.
But in the meantime, much more has happened. By December 1922, Griffith and Collins were both dead, and the 26 counties that became the Irish Free State were rocked by a brutal and devastating civil war. The British had been willing to use force to ensure compliance with the treaty and blocked paths that could have led to a compromise between the pro- and anti-treaty wings of the republican movement, which would fight against each other in the civil war. By the end of negotiations in London in December 1921, the British may have gotten more of what they wanted, but the treaty gave the Irish something to work with and rely on over time. Whether he agreed or not, the document signed in London on 6 December 1921 provided the basis for an independent Irish state that would make that date an important milestone in the struggle for Irish independence and make the treaty itself one of the most important documents in modern Irish history. The moderator of the Presbyterian Church of Ireland, Dr. Robert Dickinson, writing to Thatcher, said the deal was “the beginning of the process of pushing Northern Ireland out of the UK – sovereignty has been compromised.”  Ian Gow, a close friend of Thatcher`s and former Parliamentary Private Secretary, resigned from his position at the Treasury in protest at the deal. Irish negotiators; Griffith, Collins, Robert Barton, Eamonn Duggan and George Gavan Duffy, although they were not satisfied with the conditions, Lloyd George said non-acceptance would lead to a resumption of the war, which was lost by the IRA at the time the ceasefire was declared. The delegation finally recommended the treaty to Dáil Éireann, which was signed on December 6.
Robert Barton (1881-1975): Robert Barton was an unlikely revolutionary from a wealthy and landed Protestant family who owned the famous French winery Barton & Guestier. He attended rugby school and then Oxford University. .